EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

sodium hypochlorite
hypochlorous acid sodium salt (1:1)

Supplier Sponsors

Name:sodium hypochlorite
CAS Number: 7681-52-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:231-668-3
Nikkaji Web:J44.036A
Molecular Weight:74.44096928
Formula:Cl Na O
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:food starch-modified
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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FDA Regulation:
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.892 Food starch-modified.

Subpart D--Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 173.315 Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.

Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.170 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.

Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2800 Textiles and textile fibers.

Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions.
Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.09700 @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.712 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: oxidising agents
Kraft Chemical
Sodium Hypochlorite
For experimental / research use only.
Sodium hypochlorite solution reagent grade, available chlorine 10-15 %
Krunal Group
Sodium Hypochlorite
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: Is another name for liquid bleach which is used as a disinfectant and oxidizing agent.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: Dilute bleach baths have been used for decades to treat moderate to severe eczema in humans.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 5800 mg/kg
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Food Hygiene Journal. Vol. 27, Pg. 553, 1986.

intravenous-man TDLo 45 mg/kg
Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 21, Pg. 1394, 1992.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
food starch-modified
Recommendation for sodium hypochlorite usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for sodium hypochlorite flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sodium hypochlorite
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):7681-52-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :23665760
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
sodium hypochlorite
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
 sodium hypochlorite
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:7681-52-9
Pubchem (cid):23665760
Pubchem (sid):134988533
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:2828.90.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
•usepaopp pesticide code 014703; trade names: antiformin, b-k liquid, chlorox, dakin's solution, hychlorite, milton, mera industries 2mom3b, chloros, javelle water, piochlor, purex. •modified dakin's soln; surgical chlorinated soda solution; carrel-dakin soln. sodium hypochlorite diluted •eau de labarraque; clorox; dazzle aq soln •strongly alkaline soln of sodium hypochlorite; 100 ml contains 5.68 g active chlorine, 7.8 g sodium hydroxide, 32 g sodium bicarbonate. sodium hypochlorite soln, alkaline •topical, as solution containing 0.15 to 0.5% of sodium hypochlorite. the full-strength soln contains 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; to prepare the 0.15% solution it should be diluted 1 to 3. sodium hypochlorite solution, diluted •the official solution (nf) contains between 4 and 6% sodium hypochlorite dilute solutions of the carrel-dakin type are about 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. •available in 15% industrial grade 15% & 20% solution grades 17.5%, 13.2%, 7.0% and 5.0% industrial grades. •clorox liquid bleach: 5-10% sodium hypochlorite; cloropool: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; clorozone: 5.0% sodium hypochlorite •sold as aqueous solution at 5-40% concentration •antiforminum dentale: dental sodium hypochlorite soln. labarraque's soln ...
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 clorox liquid bleach
 hypochlorous acid sodium salt
 hypochlorous acid sodium salt (1:1)
 hypochlorous acid, sodium salt
 milton crystals
 sodium hydrochlorite
 sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)
 sodium oxychloride


Info:Sodium Hypochlorite
PubMed:Short communication: Reactivity of diacetyl with cleaning and sanitizing agents.
PubMed:Efficiency of sodium hypochlorite and calcinated calcium in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus attached to freshly shredded cabbage.
PubMed:Effectiveness of sanitation with quaternary ammonium compound or chlorine on stainless steel and other domestic food-preparation surfaces.
PubMed:Development of an algorithm for feed-forward chlorine dosing of lettuce wash operations and correlation of chlorine profile with Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation.
PubMed:Leveraging management strategies for seedborne plant diseases to reduce Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium incidence on tomato seed and seedlings.
PubMed:Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.
PubMed:Ozone oxidation of cassava starch in aqueous solution at different pH.
PubMed:The evaluation of combined chemical and physical treatments on the reduction of resident microorganisms and Salmonella Typhimurium attached to chicken skin.
PubMed:Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.
PubMed:Inactivation Kinetics of Various Chemical Disinfectants on Aeromonas hydrophila Planktonic Cells and Biofilms.
PubMed:Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil.
PubMed:Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed:Commonly used disinfectants fail to eradicate Salmonella enterica biofilms from food contact surface materials.
PubMed:Development of a simple fluorescence-based microplate method for the high-throughput analysis of proline in wine samples.
PubMed:Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.
PubMed:Exposure of Escherichia coli ATCC 12806 to sublethal concentrations of food-grade biocides influences its ability to form biofilm, resistance to antimicrobials, and ultrastructure.
PubMed:Effects of water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on in-shell hazelnuts inoculated with salmonella enterica serovar Panama.
PubMed:Chlorination of bisphenol A: non-targeted screening for the identification of transformation products and assessment of estrogenicity in generated water.
PubMed:Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides on the conjugative transfer of Tn916 in Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Survival of foodborne pathogens on inshell walnuts.
PubMed:Colpoda secrete viable Listeria monocytogenes within faecal pellets.
PubMed:Multilocus sequence typing and biocide tolerance of Arcobacter butzleri from Danish broiler carcasses.
PubMed:Effect of mineral elements on physicochemical properties of oxidised starches and generation of free radicals.
PubMed:Resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores and biofilm to industrial sanitizers.
PubMed:Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.
PubMed:Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for inactivation of human noroviruses and their surrogates.
PubMed:Why food-poisoning bacteria attached to shredded cabbage are not efficiently disinfected by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO).
PubMed:Influence of disinfectant solutions on test materials used for the determination of masticatory performance.
PubMed:Cleaning assessment of disinfectant cleaning wipes on an external surface of a medical device contaminated with artificial blood or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
PubMed:Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination in food grease.
PubMed:Assessment of the susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria to biocides.
PubMed:Reduction of pesticide residues in tomatoes and other produce.
PubMed:Rapid analysis of cyclamate in foods and beverages by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD).
PubMed:Effect of the use of a neutralizing step after antimicrobial application on microbial counts during challenge studies for orange disinfection.
PubMed:Effect of alkali and oxidative treatments on the physicochemical, pasting, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch.
PubMed:Growth of Salmonella enterica in foliar pesticide solutions and its survival during field production and postharvest handling of fresh market tomato.
PubMed:Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations.
PubMed:Inhibition of Penicillium expansum by an oxidative treatment.
PubMed:Sanitizing alternatives for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on bell peppers at household kitchens.
PubMed:Short communication: Reactivity of diacetyl with cleaning and sanitizing agents.
PubMed:Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.
PubMed:Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce.
PubMed:Assessment of a regulatory sanitization process in Egyptian dairy plants in regard to the adherence of some food-borne pathogens and their biofilms.
PubMed:Electrostatic spraying of food-grade organic and inorganic acids and plant extracts to decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on spinach and iceberg lettuce.
PubMed:Efficacy of different sanitizing agents and their combination on microbe population and quality of fresh-cut Chinese chives.
PubMed:Chemical inactivation of protein toxins on food contact surfaces.
PubMed:Acetone precipitation of the scrapie agent results in successful recovery of PrP(Sc) but decreased infectivity.
PubMed:The effect of calcinated calcium and chlorine treatments on?Escherichia coli?O157:H7 87-23 population reduction in radish sprouts.
PubMed:Extrusion and characterization of thermoplastic starch sheets from "macho" banana.
PubMed:Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.
PubMed:Investigation of rpoS and dps genes in sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 isolated from foodborne illness outbreaks in southern Brazil.
PubMed:Differential biofilm formation and chemical disinfection resistance of sessile cells of listeria monocytogenes strains under monospecies and dual-species (with Salmonella enterica) conditions.
PubMed:Inactivation of biofilm cells of foodborne pathogen by aerosolized sanitizers.
PubMed:[Current topics on inactivation of norovirus].
PubMed:Investigation of chemical rinses suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.
PubMed:[Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].
PubMed:[Inhibitory effect of essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents on bacterial histidine decarboxylase].
PubMed:Slicing under chlorinated water improves the disinfection of fresh-cut romaine lettuce.
PubMed:Evaluation of overhead spray-applied sanitizers for the reduction of Salmonella on tomato surfaces.
PubMed:Comparative antibacterial efficacy of endemic satureja khuzistanica jamzad essential oil, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate solutions as root canal irrigations.
PubMed:Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers.
PubMed:Resistance of two temperate Lactobacillus paracasei bacteriophages to high pressure homogenization, thermal treatments and chemical biocides of industrial application.
PubMed:What point-of-use water treatment products do consumers use? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial among the urban poor in Bangladesh.
PubMed:Acidified sodium chlorite optimisation assessment to improve quality of fresh-cut tatsoi baby leaves.
PubMed:Reduction of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes with electrolyzed oxidizing water on inoculated hass avocados (Persea americana var. Hass).
PubMed:Effect of cooled and chlorinated chiller water on Campylobacter and coliform counts on broiler carcasses during chilling at a middle-size poultry processing plant.
PubMed:Effect of food residues on norovirus survival on stainless steel surfaces.
PubMed:Inhibition of?Escherichia coli?O157:H7 and?Clostridium sporogenes?in spinach packaged in modified atmospheres after treatment combined with chlorine and lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Chlorine stabilizer T-128 enhances efficacy of chlorine against cross-contamination by E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in fresh-cut lettuce processing.
PubMed:Inappropriate use of D-values for determining biocidal activity of various antimicrobials.
PubMed:Electrostatic sprays of food-grade acids and plant extracts are more effective than conventional sprays in decontaminating Salmonella Typhimurium on spinach.
PubMed:The effect of chemical treatment on reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in black and white pepper during washing.
PubMed:Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica enteritidis biofilms susceptibility to different disinfectants and stress-response and virulence gene expression of surviving cells.
PubMed:Trisodium phosphate for foodborne virus reduction on produce.
PubMed:Effects of combined treatment of sodium hypochlorite/ionizing radiation and addition of vitamin B(1) on microbial flora of oyster and short-necked clam.
PubMed:Combination treatment of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat to ensure microbial safety, shelf-life and sensory quality of shredded carrots.
PubMed:Role of cellulose in protecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli against osmotic and chlorine stress.
PubMed:Effect of desiccation on tolerance of salmonella enterica to multiple stresses.
PubMed:Synergistic effects of sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet radiation in reducing the levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.
PubMed:Non-wood Fibre Production of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Sorghum caudatum: Characterisation and Tableting Properties.
PubMed:Sucrose monolaurate improves the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on spinach.
PubMed:Determination and improvement of microbial safety of wheat sprouts with chemical sanitizers.
PubMed:Adhesion and biocides inactivation of Salmonella on stainless steel and polyethylene.
PubMed:Comparison of inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes within a biofilm matrix using chlorine dioxide gas, aqueous chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatments.
PubMed:Microbicidal and cytotoxic effects of functional water in vitro.
PubMed:Inactivation of several strains of Listeria monocytogenes attached to the surface of packaging material by Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.
PubMed:Localization, growth, and inactivation of Salmonella Saintpaul on jalape?o peppers.
PubMed:Comparison of the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and sodium hypochlorite in reducing Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation on Romaine lettuce and spinach leaf surfaces reduces efficacy of irradiation and sodium hypochlorite washes.
PubMed:In vitro inactivation of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. using slightly acidic electrolyzed water.
PubMed:Combined effects of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat to control microorganisms on cabbage.
PubMed:Temperate and virulent Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages: comparison of their thermal and chemical resistance.
PubMed:Concomitant production, partial purification and characterization of a serine protease and a proteolysis-resistant metallolipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2.
PubMed:Comparative transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of the responses of Bacillus cereus to various disinfectant treatments.
PubMed:Microbiological and physical quality changes in vacuum loader cups associated with the use of various sanitizing compounds.
PubMed:The effects of temperature, chlorine and acids on the survival of Listeria and Salmonella strains associated with uncooked shrimp carapace and cooked shrimp flesh.
PubMed:Cross-contamination of fresh-cut lettuce after a short-term exposure during pre-washing cannot be controlled after subsequent washing with chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed:Attachment of noroviruses to stainless steel and their inactivation, using household disinfectants.
PubMed:Evaluation of bactericidal activity of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW) against Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
PubMed:Macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres bearing phosphate groups as a new adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein apheresis.
PubMed:Efficacy of chemical treatments against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and MS2 bacteriophage.
PubMed:Mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on food contact surfaces with aqueous chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite.
PubMed:Optimization and evaluation of a decontamination step with peroxyacetic acid for fresh-cut produce.
PubMed:Disinfection of iceberg lettuce by titanium dioxide-UV photocatalytic reaction.
PubMed:Synergistic antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and cupric sulfate against Penicillium digitatum.
PubMed:Efficacy of antimicrobial agents in lettuce leaf processing water for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7.
PubMed:Transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to oxidative stress.
PubMed:Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid in sanitizing green coconuts.
PubMed:Efficacy of electrolyzed water and an acidic formulation compared with regularly used chemical sanitizers for tableware sanitization during mechanical and manual ware-washing protocols.
PubMed:Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium with compounds available in households.
PubMed:Stress resistance of biofilm and planktonic Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum JCM 1149.
PubMed:Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxyacetic acid to reduce murine norovirus 1, B40-8, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on shredded iceberg lettuce and in residual wash water.
PubMed:Thermal, chemical, and photocatalytic inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophages.
PubMed:Efficacy of sanitizing agents against Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on high-density polyethylene cutting board surfaces.
PubMed:Synergistic effect of electrolyzed water and citric Acid against bacillus cereus cells and spores on cereal grains.
PubMed:Moderate and high doses of sodium hypochlorite, neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water, peroxyacetic acid, and gaseous chlorine dioxide did not affect the nutritional and sensory qualities of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa Var. capitata L.) after washing.
PubMed:Disinfection methods used in decontamination of bottles used for feeding powdered infant formula.
PubMed:Inactivation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as a surrogate for Yersinia pestis, by liquid biocides in the presence of food residue.
PubMed:Susceptibilities of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and avirulent Bacillus anthracis spores to liquid biocides.
PubMed:Evaluation of treatments for elimination of foodborne pathogens on the surface of leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).
PubMed:Destruction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice on stainless steel surfaces by chemical disinfectants.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties of selectively oxidized 1-monolaurin from 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl oxoammonium ion/sodium hypochlorite-mediated reaction.
PubMed:Hypochlorite treatments are not a significant source of perchlorate exposure in lettuce.
PubMed:Chlorine inactivation of coliphage MS2 on strawberries by industrial-scale water washing units.
PubMed:[Volatile organic compounds in ready-to-eat fruits and vegetable products].
PubMed:Efficiency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and its contaminated shell eggs.
PubMed:Efficiency of sodium hypochlorite and calcinated calcium in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus attached to freshly shredded cabbage.
PubMed:Enhanced production of lutein in heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides by oxidative stress.
PubMed:Rechargeable antimicrobial surface modification of polyethylene.
PubMed:Inactivation of murine norovirus 1 and Bacteroides fragilis infecting phage B40-8 by the use of sodium hypochlorite and peroxyacetic acid as decontaminating agents for shredded iceberg lettuce.
PubMed:Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and their disinfection.
PubMed:Domestic refrigeration practices with emphasis on hygiene: analysis of a survey and consumer recommendations.
PubMed:Characterization of spores of Bacillus subtilis that lack most coat layers.
PubMed:Sugarcane bagasse oxidation using a combination of hypochlorite and peroxide.
PubMed:Inhibition of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis in raw vegetables by application of washing solutions containing enterocin AS-48 alone and in combination with other antimicrobials.
PubMed:Effect of decontamination agents on the microbial population, sensorial quality, and nutrient content of grated carrots (Daucus carota L.).
PubMed:Combined physico-chemical treatments based on enterocin AS-48 for inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria in soybean sprouts.
PubMed:Irradiation compared with chlorination for elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalized in lettuce leaves: influence of lettuce variety.
PubMed:Effect of chemical sanitizer combined with modified atmosphere packaging on inhibiting Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercial spinach.
PubMed:Halogenated volatile organic compounds from the use of chlorine-bleach-containing household products.
PubMed:Introduction a potato cultivar "sprit" as relatively resistant to main fungal pathogens causal agents of early blight and wilting on potato in Iran.
PubMed:Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by a combination of biocides and heating under high-temperature short-time pasteurization conditions.
PubMed:Efficacy of sanitizing treatments against Penicillium expansum inoculated on six varieties of apples.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties of partially oxidized corn starch from bromide-free TEMPO-mediated reaction.
PubMed:Contribution of wheat endogenous and wheat kernel associated microbial endoxylanases to changes in the arabinoxylan population during breadmaking.
PubMed:Efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) for reducing microbial contamination on minimally-processed vegetables.
PubMed:Relative efficacy of sodium hypochlorite wash versus irradiation to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalized in leaves of Romaine lettuce and baby spinach.
PubMed:Antimicrobial effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa).
PubMed:Sanitation procedure affects biochemical and nutritional changes of shredded carrots.
PubMed:Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by native microflora recovered from fresh peeled baby carrot and propagated in cultures.
PubMed:Influence of enteric bacteria conditioned media on recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 exposed to starvation and sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity and effectiveness of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in killing and removing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms from surfaces.
PubMed:Recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses after spray washing with acidified electrolyzed water or sodium hypochlorite solutions.
PubMed:Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by liquid biocides in the presence of food residue.
PubMed:AOAC method 966.04: preliminary evaluation of cooked meat medium with manganese sulfate for the cultivation of Clostridium sporogenes: precollaborative study.
PubMed:Mycotoxin producing Fusarium species associated with plant disease on potato, wheat, corn and animal diseases in northwest Iran.
PubMed:Effects of irradiation and sodium hypochlorite on the micro-organisms attached to a commercial food container.
PubMed:Influence of disinfectants on domestic wastewater treatment plant performance.
PubMed:Efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water to inactivate Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus on plastic and wooden kitchen cutting boards.
PubMed:Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes.
PubMed:Involvement of radical species in inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in saline solutions by direct-current electric treatment.
PubMed:Survival, elongation, and elevated tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis at reduced water activity.
PubMed:Photolysis and photocatalysis of bisphenol A: identification of degradation products by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization/time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/ToF/MS).
PubMed:Biofilm formation and biocides sensitivity of Pseudomonas marginalis isolated from a maple sap collection system.
PubMed:Evaluation of chemical and physical (high-pressure and temperature) treatments to improve the safety of minimally processed mung bean sprouts during refrigerated storage.
PubMed:Efficacy of electrolyzed water in the inactivation of planktonic and biofilm Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of organic matter.
PubMed:Formation of iodoacetic acids during cooking: interaction of iodized table salt with chlorinated drinking water.
PubMed:Quantification of contamination of lettuce by GFP-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
PubMed:Susceptibility of Penicillium expansum spores to sodium hypochlorite, electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide solutions modified with nonionic surfactants.
PubMed:The indirect detection of bleach (sodium hypochlorite) in beverages as evidence of product tampering.
PubMed:[Bacterial contamination in an egg-breaking factory and its control].
PubMed:Chlorine resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms and relationship to subtype, cell density, and planktonic cell chlorine resistance.
PubMed:Characterization of a new virulent phage (MLC-A) of Lactobacillus paracasei.
PubMed:Effect of different cleaning regimens on recovery of Clostridium perfringens on poultry live haul containers.
PubMed:Efficiency of sodium hypochlorite, fumaric acid, and mild heat in killing native microflora and Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium DT104, and Staphylococcus aureus attached to fresh-cut lettuce.
PubMed:Adsorption of a biosurfactant on surfaces to enhance the disinfection of surfaces contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Survey of the mycobiota of Spanish malting barley and evaluation of the mycotoxin producing potential of species of Alternaria, Aspergillus and Fusarium.
PubMed:The effects of chemical and heat maceration techniques on the recovery of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from bone.
PubMed:Effect of ozonated water treatment on microbial control and on browning of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).
PubMed:The antibacterial action of cloths and sanitizers and the use of environmental alternatives in food industries.
PubMed:Effect of immersion solutions containing enterocin AS-48 on Listeria monocytogenes in vegetable foods.
PubMed:Investigation into the resistance of lactoperoxidase tolerant Escherichia coli mutants to different forms of oxidative stress.
PubMed:Milk and milk components reduce the motility of Ostertagia circumcincta larvae in vitro.
PubMed:5,5-Dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone-N-oxyl formation in electron spin resonance studies of electrolyzed NaCl solution using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as a spin trapping agent.
PubMed:Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel and glass surfaces by neutral electrolysed water.
PubMed:Monochloramine versus sodium hypochlorite as antimicrobial agents for reducing populations of bacteria on broiler chicken carcasses.
PubMed:Experimental microbial contamination and disinfection of dry (vapour) shipper dewars designed for short-term storage and transportation of cryopreserved germplasm and other biological specimens.
PubMed:Destruction of Listeria monocytogenes in sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) caviar by a combination of nisin with chemical antimicrobials or moderate heat.
PubMed:Effects of selective oxidation of chitosan on physical and biological properties.
PubMed:Effect of heat, acidification, and chlorination on Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cells in a biofilm formed at the air-liquid interface.
PubMed:The use of household bleach to control Aedes aegypti.
PubMed:PCR detection of bovine mitochondrial DNA derived from meat and bone meal in feed.
PubMed:Effect of simulated spray chilling with chemical solutions on acid-habituated and non-acid-habituated Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells attached to beef carcass tissue.
PubMed:Gas chromatographic evaluation of pesticide residue contents in nectarines after non-toxic washing treatments.
PubMed:The efficacy of cleaning products on food industry surfaces.
PubMed:Endogenous formation of novel halogenated 2'-deoxycytidine. Hypohalous acid-mediated DNA modification at the site of inflammation.
PubMed:Inactivation of caliciviruses.
PubMed:Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves.
PubMed:Efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water for microbial decontamination of cucumbers and strawberries.
PubMed:Direct microscopic observation of viability of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin treated with selected chemical sanitizing agents.
PubMed:Adding an oxidant increases the stability of iodine in iodized salt.
PubMed:Renibacterium salmoninarum: effect of hypochlorite treatment, and survival in water.
PubMed:Thermal and chemical resistance of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteriophages.
PubMed:Reduction of microbial pathogens during apple cider production using sodium hypochlorite, copper ion, and sonication.
PubMed:Efficacy of egg cleaning compounds on eggshells contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.
PubMed:Identification and behavior of reaction products formed by chlorination of ethynylestradiol.
PubMed:Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to commercially available alkaline cleaners and subsequent resistance to heat and sanitizers.
PubMed:Survival of acid-adapted or nonadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple wounds and surrounding tissue following chemical treatments and storage.
PubMed:Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning and household bleach.
PubMed:Recovery of surface bacteria from and surface sanitization of cantaloupes.
PubMed:Effects of different disinfection treatments on the natural microbiota of lettuce.
PubMed:Internalization of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo in growing bean sprouts.
PubMed:Comparison of the disinfection efficacy of chlorine-based products for inactivation of viral indicators and pathogenic bacteria in produce wash water.
PubMed:Toxigenic fungi associated with processed (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.).
PubMed:Industry practices and compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines among California sprout firms.
PubMed:Inactivation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages by heat and biocides.
PubMed:Serial disinfection with heat and chlorine to reduce microorganism populations on poultry transport containers.
PubMed:The role of disinfectant resistance of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis in recurring infections in Pennsylvania egg quality assurance program monitored flocks.
PubMed:Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes.
PubMed:Modeling of chlorine effect on floc forming and filamentous micro-organisms of activated sludges.
PubMed:Assessment of control measures to achieve a food safety objective of less than 100 CFU of Listeria monocytogenes per gram at the point of consumption for fresh precut iceberg lettuce.
PubMed:Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes.
PubMed:Cytotoxicity of liquid disinfectants.
PubMed:Adaptive and cross-adaptive responses of persistent and non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains to disinfectants.
PubMed:Effect of broiler age, feed withdrawal, and transportation on levels of coliforms, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Salmonella on carcasses before and after immersion chilling.
PubMed:Pre-treatment optimisation studies for secondary effluent reclamation with reverse osmosis.
PubMed:Effectiveness of commercial disinfectants for inactivating hepatitis A virus on agri-food surfaces.
PubMed:Alfalfa sprouts and Salmonella Kottbus infection: a multistate outbreak following inadequate seed disinfection with heat and chlorine.
PubMed:On the natural diet of Daphnia laevis in the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais).
PubMed:Effectiveness of thermal treatments and biocides in the inactivation of Argentinian Lactococcus lactis phages.
PubMed:Biofilm formation by acid-adapted and nonadapted Listeria monocytogenes in fresh beef decontamination washings and its subsequent inactivation with sanitizers.
PubMed:Rapid determination of sanitizer concentration using impedance-based methods.
PubMed:Development of a standard test to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells to disinfectants.
PubMed:Identification of estrogenic activity of chlorinated bisphenol A using a GFP expression system.
PubMed:Effect of wash water temperature and chlorination on phenolic metabolism and browning of stored iceberg lettuce photosynthetic and vascular tissues.
PubMed:Transfer of persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination between food-processing plants associated with a dicing machine.
PubMed:Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in mung bean sprouts by chemical treatment.
PubMed:Evaluation of chemical disinfectants for the elimination of Salmonella biofilms from poultry transport containers.
PubMed:Inactivation and removal of Bacillus cereus by sanitizer and detergent.
PubMed:In vitro antifungal activity of several antimicrobial compounds against Penicillium expansum.
PubMed:Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial food-processing equipment cleaning solutions and subsequent sensitivity to sanitizers and heat.
PubMed:Effects of different disinfection and sterilization methods on tensile strength of materials used for single-use devices.
PubMed:The effect of the growth phase of Staphylococcus aureus on resistance to disinfectants in a suspension test.
PubMed:Decontamination of aflatoxin-forming fungus and elimination of aflatoxin mutagenicity with electrolyzed NaCl anode solution.
PubMed:Heated scallop-shell powder slurry treatment of shredded cabbage.
PubMed:Practical synthesis of 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione, an intense strawlike and fruity flavored compound.
PubMed:[Stability of Lactococcus lactis phages treated with sodium hypochlorite and during storage].
PubMed:Bioluminescence ATP assay for estimating total plate counts of surface microflora of whole cantaloupe and determining efficacy of washing treatments.
PubMed:Decontamination of lettuce using acidic electrolyzed water.
PubMed:Inactivation of infective larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis with short time incubations in 1.5% bleach solution, vinegar or saturated cooking salt solution.
PubMed:Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to liquid disinfectants on contaminated surfaces before formation of biofilms.
PubMed:Evaluation of residual levels of benomyl, methyl parathion, diuron, and vamidothion in pineapple pulp and bagasse (Smooth cayenne).
PubMed:Comparison of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid as sanitising agents for stainless steel food processing surfaces using epifluorescence microscopy.
PubMed:Survival of Salmonella hadar after washing disinfection of minimally processed spinach.
PubMed:Action against Vibrio cholerae O1 Tox+ of chemical products used in the lemon production.
PubMed:Attachment and growth of Salmonella Chester on apple fruits and in vivo response of attached bacteria to sanitizer treatments.
PubMed:Assessment of the microbiological quality and wash treatments of lettuce served in University restaurants.
PubMed:Thermal and chemical inactivation of indigenous Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages isolated from Argentinian dairy plants.
PubMed:The growth and resistance to sodium hypochlorite of Listeria monocytogenes in a steady-state multispecies biofilm.
PubMed:Cryptosporidium parvum studies with dairy products.
PubMed:Major degradation pathway of thiuram in tap water processed by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed:Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial cheese brines.
PubMed:Inactivation of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages by thermal and chemical treatments.
PubMed:Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds.
PubMed:Contamination of intact apples after immersion in an aqueous environment containing Escherichia coli O157:H7.
PubMed:Effect of chemical cleaning agents and commercial sanitizers on ATP bioluminescence measurements.
PubMed:Reaction of cyclohexylamine with hypochlorite and enhancement of oxidation of plasma sulfhydryl groups by hypochlorite in vitro.
PubMed:Effect of chemical sanitizing agents on ATP bioluminescence measurements.
PubMed:Bacterial penetration into eggs washed with various chemicals and stored at different temperatures and times.
PubMed:Bacteriocidal activity of sanitizers against Enterococcus faecium attached to stainless steel as determined by plate count and impedance methods.
PubMed:Effects of salt and serum on the sporicidal activity of liquid disinfectants.
PubMed:Utilization of the skin attachment model to determine the antibacterial efficacy of potential carcass treatments.
PubMed:Comparative sensitivity of 13 species of pathogenic bacteria to seven chemical germicides.
PubMed:Tannin elimination and improvement of the digestibility of protein sorghum grains.
PubMed:Enumeration of fungi in barley.
PubMed:Effectiveness of sanitation with quaternary ammonium compound or chlorine on stainless steel and other domestic food-preparation surfaces.
PubMed:Comparative sporicidal effect of liquid chemical germicides on three medical devices contaminated with spores of Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Evaluation of surface disinfection procedures for enumerating fungi in foods: a collaborative study.
PubMed:Cupric and ferric ions inactivate HIV.
PubMed:Comparative sporicidal effects of liquid chemical agents.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of spectinomycin in swine, calf and chicken plasma using post-column derivatization.
PubMed:[Abdominal angiostrongyliasis: its prevention by the destruction of infecting larvae in food treated with salt, vinegar or sodium hypochlorite].
PubMed:Enhancement of ethylenethiourea recoveries in food analyses by addition of cysteine hydrochloride.
PubMed:[Prion, from crazy cows to iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Which risk in laboratory or in hospital?].
PubMed:Household bleaches based on sodium hypochlorite: review of acute toxicology and poison control center experience.
PubMed:Evaluation of 57 teat sanitizers using excised cow teats.
PubMed:Microbial contamination of enteral feeding solution and its prevention.
PubMed:Microbial contamination of enteral feeding solution and its prevention.
PubMed:Evaluation of the repeatability and reproducibility of European suspension test methods for antimicrobial activity of disinfectants and antiseptics.
PubMed:Chemical inactivation of aflatoxins in peanut protein ingredients.
PubMed:Effective cleaning and sanitizing of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane systems.
PubMed:Effect of surface sterilization, fumigation and gamma irradiation on the microflora and germination of barley seeds.
PubMed:Efficiency of sanitizing agents for destroying Listeria monocytogenes on contaminated surfaces.
PubMed:Spectrophotometric determination of taurine in food samples with phenol and sodium hypochlorite as reagents and an ion-exchange clean-up.
PubMed:Evaluation of immunofluorescence techniques for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from environmental samples.
PubMed:Dynamic light-scattering studies on the effect of heat and disinfectants on spores of Bacillus cereus.
PubMed:Evaluation of the clastogenicity of water treated with sodium hypochlorite or monochloramine using a micronucleus test in newt larvae (Pleurodeles waltl).
PubMed:Scrapie agent decontamination: implications for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
PubMed:[Modified method for the identification of sodium chlorite and sodium hypochlorite as food additives].
PubMed:[Distinction between sodium chlorite and sodium hypochlorite by ion-chromatography].
PubMed:[The distribution of microorganisms in household kitchens. II. Evaluation of results and hygienic inferences].
PubMed:[The distribution of microorganisms in household kitchens. I. Problems, experiments, results].
PubMed:Carcinogenicity study of sodium hypochlorite in F344 rats.
PubMed:Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC) as a substrate for growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus spp.
PubMed:Microbiological determination of neomycin in feeds and formulated products.
PubMed:Primary mutagenicity screening of food additives currently used in Japan.
PubMed:[Chemical treatment of polluted vegetables].
PubMed:Removal of electrolytes from institutionally packaged foods.
PubMed:Detection and enumeration of injured bacterial spores in processed foods.
PubMed:Effect of teat washing on the bacteriological contamination of milk from cows kept under various housing conditions.
PubMed:The fate of aflatoxin in naturally contaminated corn during the ethanol fermentation.
PubMed:Chromosomal aberration tests on 29 chemicals combined with S9 mix in vitro.
PubMed:[Use of small peptides to study the loss of available methionine, lysine and tryptophan during technological processing].
PubMed:The bactericidal capacity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate formulations used for the sterilisation of infant feeding bottles and teats.
PubMed:[Study of the activity of a stable sodium hypochlorite solution for the disinfection of fruits and vegetables on Vibrio cholerae].
PubMed:Invasion of sorghum seed by storage fungi at moisture contents of 13.5-15 percent and condition of samples from commercial bins.
PubMed:Effect of chlorination in the final washer on bacterial counts of broiler chicken carcasses.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of pigments from protein-carbon browning systems. Isolation, purification, and properties.
PubMed:Comparison of materials used for cleaning equipment in retail food premises, and of two methods for the enumeration of bacteria on cleaned equipment and work surfaces.
PubMed:Detection of chloramine T in dairy products.
PubMed:Salmonella and total count reduction in poultry treated with sodium hypochlorite solutions.
PubMed:[Chemical sterilization in the milk kitchen].
it is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (from grant & hackh's chemical dictionary, 5th ed) Bleaching agent for starch; also used in washing and lye peeling of fruits and vegetables Chlorination of drinking water can oxidize organic contaminants, producing trihalomethanes (also called haloforms), which are carcinogenic. The extent of the hazard thus created is a subject of disagreement.; Household bleach sold for use in laundering clothes is a 3-6% solution of sodium hypochlorite at the time of manufacture. Strength varies from one formulation to another and gradually decreases with long storage.; Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent.; Sodium hypochlorite is a strong oxidizer. Products of the oxidation reactions are corrosive. Solutions burn skin and cause eye damage, particularly when used in concentrated forms. However, as recognized by the NFPA, only solutions containing more than 40% sodium hypochlorite by weight are considered hazardous oxidizers. Solutions less than 40% are classified as a moderate oxidizing hazard (NFPA 430, 2000).; Sodium thiosulfate (hypo) is an effective chlorine neutralizer. Rinsing with a 5 mg/L solution, followed by washing with soap and water, quickly removes chlorine odor from the hands.
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