EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

glyceryl tristearate
tristearin

Supplier Sponsors

Name:2,3-di(octadecanoyloxy)propyl octadecanoate
CAS Number: 555-43-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:209-097-6
FDA UNII:P6OCJ2551R
Nikkaji Web:J6.468H
Beilstein Number:1718456
MDL:MFCD00036230
XlogP3-AA:25.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:891.49890000
Formula:C57 H110 O6
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:formulation aids
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
FDA Mainterm (SATF):555-43-1 ; GLYCERYL TRISTEARATE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.811 Glyceryl tristearate
 
Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 55.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 812.00 to 813.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Acid Value: 1.00 max. KOH/g
Saponification Value:186.00 to 192.00
Flash Point: 571.00 °F. TCC ( 299.40 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 24.672 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 6.528e-021 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: emollients
refatting agents
skin conditioning
solvents
viscosity controlling agents
 
Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Glyceryl tristearate 95%
ECSA Chemicals
Stearin
Company Profile
Mohini Organics
MONEGYL® - T18
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Glyceryl Tristearate
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Glyceryl tristearate ≥99%
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Tristearin >80.0%(GC)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category:
formulation aids
Recommendation for glyceryl tristearate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for glyceryl tristearate flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):555-43-1
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :11146
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:nwg
2,3-di(octadecanoyloxy)propyl octadecanoate
Chemidplus:0000555431
 
References:
 2,3-di(octadecanoyloxy)propyl octadecanoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:555-43-1
Pubchem (cid):11146
Pubchem (sid):134976520
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D10637
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB05393
FooDB:FDB005496
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01096
Export Tariff Code:2917.19.2700
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
Formulations/Preparations:
grade: technical, also graded as to source.
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 emollients
 solvents
 viscosity controlling agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
2,3-di(octadecanoyloxy)propyl octadecanoate
 dynasan 118
 glycerol trioctadecanoate
 glycerol tristearate
 glyceroltristearate
 glyceryl tristearate
 monegyl - T18
 octadecanoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester
 octadecanoic acid, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester
 propane-1,2,3-triyl trioctadecanoate
1,2,3-propanetriol trioctadecanoate
1,2,3-propanetriyl trioctadecanoate
 stearic acid triglyceride
 stearic acid triglycerin ester
 stearic triglyceride
 stearin, tri-
 stearoyl triglyceride
 triacylglycerol
1,2,3-trioctadecanoylglycerol
 tristearin
 tristearoylglycerol
 

Articles:

PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of trilaurin, triarachidin, tribehenin, tricaprin, tricaprylin, trierucin, triheptanoin, triheptylundecanoin, triisononanoin, triisopalmitin, triisostearin, trilinolein, trimyristin, trioctanoin, triolein, tripalmitin, tripalmitolein, triricinolein, tristearin, triundecanoin, glyceryl triacetyl hydroxystearate, glyceryl triacetyl ricinoleate, and glyceryl stearate diacetate.
PubMed:Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.
PubMed:Oil binding capacities of triacylglycerol crystalline nanoplatelets: nanoscale models of tristearin solids in liquid triolein.
PubMed:Targeted SLNs for management of HIV-1 associated dementia.
PubMed:Influence of surfactant composition on physical and oxidative stability of Quillaja saponin-stabilized lipid particles with encapsulated ω-3 fish oil.
PubMed:Polymorphism and kinetic behavior of binary mixtures of triglycerides.
PubMed:Cefuroxime axetil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced activity against S. aureus biofilm.
PubMed:Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs III - the effect of fed state conditions on the in vitro release and degradation of desmopressin.
PubMed:Candesartan cilexetil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery: characterization, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.
PubMed:Influence of co-surfactants on crystallization and stability of solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Brain uptake of a Zidovudine prodrug after nasal administration of solid lipid microparticles.
PubMed:Solid Lipid Particles for Oral Delivery of Peptide and Protein Drugs II - The Digestion of Trilaurin Protects Desmopressin from Proteolytic Degradation.
PubMed:Triolein and trilinolein ameliorate oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells.
PubMed:Surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of docetaxel: enhanced intestinal absorption and lymphatic uptake.
PubMed:Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.
PubMed:The effect of oil type on the aggregation stability of nanostructured lipid carriers.
PubMed:Development of a pressure-sensitive glyceryl tristearate capsule filled with a drug-containing hydrogel.
PubMed:Development and in vitro characterization of docetaxel-loaded ligand appended solid fat nanoemulsions for potential use in breast cancer therapy.
PubMed:Cationic lipid nanosystems as carriers for nucleic acids.
PubMed:Incorporation of quercetin in respirable lipid microparticles: effect on stability and cellular uptake on A549 pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.
PubMed:Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs I--elucidating the release mechanism of lysozyme during lipolysis.
PubMed:Formation of solid shell nanoparticles with liquid ω-3 fatty acid core.
PubMed:Thermo-oxidation of cholesterol: effect of the unsaturation degree of the lipid matrix.
PubMed:X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopic study of the influence of cis- and trans-unsaturation on the α-phase of triacylglycerols.
PubMed:Extension of metal oxide laser ionization mass spectrometry to analytes with varied chemical functionalities.
PubMed:Lipid-based intravesical drug delivery systems with controlled release of trospium chloride for the urinary bladder.
PubMed:A novel phospholipase B from Streptomyces sp. NA684--purification, characterization, gene cloning, extracellular production and prediction of the catalytic residues.
PubMed:Carboxymethyl starch and lecithin complex as matrix for targeted drug delivery: I. Monolithic mesalamine forms for colon delivery.
PubMed:Studies of isothermal crystallisation kinetics of sunflower hard stearin-based confectionery fats.
PubMed:Quercetin solid lipid microparticles: a flavonoid for inhalation lung delivery.
PubMed:Effect of lipid physical state of palm derivatives on β-carotene bleaching.
PubMed:Effects of dietary trans fatty acids on fat accumulation and metabolic rate in rat.
PubMed:Nanoscale characteristics of triacylglycerol oils: phase separation and binding energies of two-component oils to crystalline nanoplatelets.
PubMed:Comparative evaluation of the effect of permeation enhancers, lipid nanoparticles and colloidal silica on in vivo human skin penetration of quercetin.
PubMed:Chemically-specific dual/differential CARS micro-spectroscopy of saturated and unsaturated lipid droplets.
PubMed:Enzymatic and chemical interesterification of rice bran oil, sheaolein, and palm stearin and comparative study of their physicochemical properties.
PubMed:Mechanistic studies on the release of lysozyme from twin-screw extruded lipid implants.
PubMed:Monounsaturated fatty acids are required for membrane translocation of protein kinase C-theta induced by lipid overload in skeletal muscle.
PubMed:Application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP) for prediction of drug release from solid lipid matrices.
PubMed:Phytochemical and antifungal profiles of the seeds of carica papaya L.
PubMed:Formulation and evaluation of chitosan solid lipid nanoparticles of carbamazepine.
PubMed:Buccal delivery of methimazole as an alternative means for improvement of drug bioavailability: permeation studies and matrix system design.
PubMed:MALDI-TOF MS imaging of controlled release implants.
PubMed:Long-chain cationic derivatives of PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) as new components of potential non-viral vectors.
PubMed:Spray congealed lipid microparticles with high protein loading: preparation and solid state characterisation.
PubMed:Experimental investigation and population balance equation modeling of solid lipid nanoparticle aggregation dynamics.
PubMed:Nonionic surfactant and interfacial structure impact crystallinity and stability of β-carotene loaded lipid nanodispersions.
PubMed:Preparation and in vitro evaluation of salbutamol-loaded lipid microparticles for sustained release pulmonary therapy.
PubMed:Physicochemical characterization of curcuminoid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:In vivo sustained release of siRNA from solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1.
PubMed:Drug release from extruded solid lipid matrices: theoretical predictions and independent experiments.
PubMed:Differential effects of the trans-18:1 isomer profile of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in male F1B hamsters.
PubMed:Identification of mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas.
PubMed:Development of novel sustained release matrix pellets of betahistine dihydrochloride: effect of lipophilic surfactants and co-surfactants.
PubMed:Composition and thermal analysis of lard stearin and lard olein.
PubMed:Lipase-catalyzed preparation of human milk fat substitutes from palm stearin in a solvent-free system.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of nitrendipine solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Effect of blending and emulsification on thermal behavior, solid fat content, and microstructure properties of palm oil-based margarine fats.
PubMed:Dissolution from solid lipid extrudates containing release modifiers.
PubMed:Adsorption of nonlamellar nanostructured liquid-crystalline particles to biorelevant surfaces for improved delivery of bioactive compounds.
PubMed:In vivo and cytotoxicity evaluation of repaglinide-loaded binary solid lipid nanoparticles after oral administration to rats.
PubMed:Studies on binary lipid matrix based solid lipid nanoparticles of repaglinide: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
PubMed:The physical state of lipid nanoparticles influences their effect on in vitro cell viability.
PubMed:Evolution of fat crystal network microstructure followed by NMR.
PubMed:Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols using silver-ion liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: comparison of five different mass analyzers.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of an intracellular lipase from pleopods of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).
PubMed:Microencapsulation of a cyclodextrin complex of the UV filter, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vivo skin penetration studies.
PubMed:Solid lipid microparticles for the stability enhancement of a dopamine prodrug.
PubMed:Physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of palm diacylglycerol bakery shortening during storage.
PubMed:Effect of lipid matrix on repaglinide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery.
PubMed:Design and development of solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery of an anti-fungal agent.
PubMed:High levels of dietary stearate promote adiposity and deteriorate hepatic insulin sensitivity.
PubMed:Nondestructive rheological measurement of aqueous dispersions of solid lipid nanoparticles: effects of lipid types and concentrations on dispersion consistency.
PubMed:Extracellular lipolytic enzyme activity of a newly isolated Debaryomyces hansenii.
PubMed:[Chemical constituents and bioactivity of Teucrium pilosum].
PubMed:Fatty acid selectivity of lipases during acidolysis reaction between oleic acid and monoacid triacylglycerols.
PubMed:Influence of the composition of glycerides on the solid-state behaviour and the dissolution profiles of solid lipid extrudates.
PubMed:Development of a binary lipid nanoparticles formulation of itraconazole for parenteral administration and controlled release.
PubMed:Biopharmaceutical characterisation of insulin and recombinant human growth hormone loaded lipid submicron particles produced by supercritical gas micro-atomisation.
PubMed:Influence of structural variations on drug release from lipid/polyethylene glycol matrices.
PubMed:Effect of lipid core material on characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles designed for oral lymphatic delivery.
PubMed:Characterization of the three major polymorphic forms and liquid state of tristearin by Raman spectroscopy.
PubMed:Poly(vinyl alcohol) as emulsifier stabilizes solid triglyceride drug carrier nanoparticles in the alpha-modification.
PubMed:Incorporation of quercetin in lipid microparticles: effect on photo- and chemical-stability.
PubMed:Co-loading of a photostabilizer with the sunscreen agent, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane in solid lipid microparticles.
PubMed:Understanding the solid-state behaviour of triglyceride solid lipid extrudates and its influence on dissolution.
PubMed:Spontaneous formation of super water-repellent fractal surfaces in mixed wax systems.
PubMed:Correlation of in vivo and in vitro release data for rh-INFalpha lipid implants.
PubMed:Composition of adipose tissue and marrow fat in humans by 1H NMR at 7 Tesla.
PubMed:Production of solid lipid submicron particles for protein delivery using a novel supercritical gas-assisted melting atomization process.
PubMed:A novel mathematical model quantifying drug release from lipid implants.
PubMed:Phase behaviour of binary mixtures involving tristearin, stearyl stearate and stearic acid: thermodynamic study and BAM observation at the air-water interface and AFM analysis of LB films.
PubMed:Study of triacylglycerol polymorphs by nuclear magnetic resonance: effects of temperature and chain length on relaxation parameters.
PubMed:Investigations of the effect of the lipid matrix on drug entrapment, in vitro release, and physical stability of olanzapine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Solid lipid microparticles for the stability enhancement of the polar drug N6-cyclopentyladenosine.
PubMed:Solid lipid nanoparticles as delivery systems for bromocriptine.
PubMed:Influence of solid lipid microparticle carriers on skin penetration of the sunscreen agent, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.
PubMed:Cellular uptake of solid lipid nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of encapsulated paclitaxel in A549 cancer cells.
PubMed:Incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering study on the polymorphism of tristearin: dynamical properties of hydrocarbon chains.
PubMed:Production of solid lipid nanoparticle suspensions using supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions (SFEE) for pulmonary delivery using the AERx system.
PubMed:Biodegradation kinetics and toxicity of vegetable oil triacylglycerols under aerobic conditions.
PubMed:New insight into the role of polyethylene glycol acting as protein release modifier in lipidic implants.
PubMed:Visualizing the structure of triglyceride nanoparticles in different crystal modifications.
PubMed:Acidolysis of tristearin with selected long-chain fatty acids.
PubMed:Mechanisms controlling protein release from lipidic implants: effects of PEG addition.
PubMed:In vivo evaluation of a new polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticle (PLN) formulation of doxorubicin in a murine solid tumor model.
PubMed:Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. VII. Effects of larval dietary fatty acids on adult epicuticular hydrocarbons.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioavailability of nitrendipine solid lipid nanoparticles after intravenous and intraduodenal administration.
PubMed:NIR spectroscopy-a non-destructive analytical tool for protein quantification within lipid implants.
PubMed:Tamoxifen citrate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): preparation, characterization, in vitro drug release, and pharmacokinetic evaluation.
PubMed:Encapsulation in lipospheres of the complex between butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.
PubMed:Continuous release of Rh-interferon (alpha-2a from triglyceride implants: storage stability of the dosage forms.
PubMed:Development and characterization of emulsomes for sustained and targeted delivery of an antiviral agent to liver.
PubMed:Influence of liposphere preparation on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane photostability.
PubMed:A secreted lipase encoded by LIP1 is necessary for efficient use of saturated triglyceride lipids in Fusarium graminearum.
PubMed:Enhancement of melatonin photostability by encapsulation in lipospheres.
PubMed:Saturated phospholipids promote crystallization but slow down polymorphic transitions in triglyceride nanoparticles.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioavailability of clozapine solid lipid nanoparticles after intravenous and intraduodenal administration.
PubMed:Effect of solid state transition on the physical stability of suspensions containing bupivacaine lipid microparticles.
PubMed:Triptolide loaded solid lipid nanoparticle hydrogel for topical application.
PubMed:Investigation on the flow behavior of dispersions of solid triglyceride nanoparticles.
PubMed:Diet preferences for specific fatty acids and their effect on composition of fat reserves in migratory Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceous).
PubMed:Solid-state NMR studies of pharmaceutical solids in polymer matrices.
PubMed:Continuous release of rh-interferon alpha-2a from triglyceride matrices.
PubMed:The effect of lipids on the adherence of axillary aerobic coryneform bacteria.
PubMed:Preparation, characterization and in vitro release kinetics of clozapine solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Solid lipid nanoparticle and microemulsion for topical delivery of triptolide.
PubMed:Study of solid lipid nanoparticles with respect to particle size distribution and drug loading.
PubMed:Synthesis and analysis of symmetrical and nonsymmetrical disaturated/monounsaturated triacylglycerols.
PubMed:[Optimization of the preparation of 3',5'-dioctanoyl-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine pharmacosomes using central composite design].
PubMed:A supercritical fluid-based coating technology. 2: solubility considerations.
PubMed:Rapid thermogravimetric measurements of boiling points and vapor pressure of saturated medium- and long-chain triglycerides.
PubMed:In vitro effects of fat, FA, and cholesterol on sphingomyelin hydrolysis induced by rat intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase.
PubMed:Production of lipospheres as carriers for bioactive compounds.
PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of trilaurin, triarachidin, tribehenin, tricaprin, tricaprylin, trierucin, triheptanoin, triheptylundecanoin, triisononanoin, triisopalmitin, triisostearin, trilinolein, trimyristin, trioctanoin, triolein, tripalmitin, tripalmitolein, triricinolein, tristearin, triundecanoin, glyceryl triacetyl hydroxystearate, glyceryl triacetyl ricinoleate, and glyceryl stearate diacetate.
PubMed:Docosahexaenoic acid is superior to eicosapentaenoic acid as the essential fatty acid for growth of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus.
PubMed:Comparative effects of dietary fat types on hepatic enzyme activities related to the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acid and to lipogenesis in rats.
PubMed:Structure of beta-trimyristin and beta-tristearin from high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction data.
PubMed:Accelerative effect of olive oil on adrenal corticosterone secretion in rats loaded with single or repetitive immersion-restraint stress.
PubMed:Interactive effects of dietary cholesterol and different saturated fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in the hamster.
PubMed:The absorption of stearic acid from triacylglycerols: an inquiry and analysis.
PubMed:Fats infused intraduodenally affect the postprandial secretion of the exocrine pancreas and the plasma concentration of cholecystokinin but not of peptide YY in growing pigs.
PubMed:Rheologic and NMR characterization of monoglyceride-based formulations.
PubMed:Correlation between DNA or protein adducts and benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I-triglyceride adduct detected in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Effect of synthetic triglycerides of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid on serum lipoprotein metabolism.
PubMed:Regulation of plasma and liver total cholesterol levels by dietary oleic acid in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed:Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic monitor of P. acnes lipid hydrolysis in vitro.
PubMed:Charge-remote fragmentations are energy-dependent processes.
PubMed:The effect of different dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism: concentration-dependent effects of diets enriched in oleic, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids.
PubMed:Genetic determinants of plasma lipoprotein levels and their dietary response.
PubMed:The trans fatty acid content of fats in some manufactured foods commonly available in New Zealand.
PubMed:Interactions between Tristearin Crystals and Proteins at the Oil-Water Interface
PubMed:Hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein messenger RNA concentrations are increased by dietary cholesterol in hamsters.
PubMed:Interactive effects of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat on low density lipoprotein cholesterol.
PubMed:Determination of positional distribution of butyryl groups in milkfat triacylglycerols, triacylglycerol mixtures, and isolated positional isomers of triacylglycerols by gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
PubMed:The in vitro antioxidant activity of trilinolein and other lipid-related natural substances as measured by enhanced chemiluminescence.
PubMed:Multiple emulsion-based systems carrying insulin: development and characterization.
PubMed:Modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein B, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA and plasma lipoprotein concentrations by defined dietary fats. Comparison of trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein.
PubMed:Regulation of hamster hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA levels by dietary fats.
PubMed:Effects of an intravitreal daunomycin implant on experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy: simultaneous pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations.
PubMed:Influence of linoleic acid on desaturation and uptake of deuterium-labeled palmitic and stearic acids in humans.
PubMed:Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).
PubMed:Pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of freeze-dried formulations of egg albumin, indomethacin, olive oil, or fatty acids.
PubMed:Effects of feeding medium-chain triacylglycerols on maternal lipid metabolism and pup growth in lactating rats.
PubMed:Effect of triacylglycerols on erythrocyte deformability in vitro.
PubMed:Chemoreception for fat: do rats sense triglycerides directly?
PubMed:The essential fatty acid requirement of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal).
PubMed:Effects of glycerol tripalmitate and glycerol trioleate on intestinal absorption of glycerol tristearate.
PubMed:[Improvement of gastrointestinal absorption of 2-[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin- 1-yl]ethyl acetate, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent].
PubMed:Resistance of lipid films to transmission of water vapor and oxygen.
PubMed:A comparison of absorption of glycerol tristearate and glycerol trioleate by rat small intestine.
PubMed:The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on liver retinyl ester (vitamin A ester) composition in the rat.
PubMed:Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids on weight gain and liver polar lipid fatty acid composition of fingerling channel catfish.
PubMed:Modulation of the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition of phosphatidylethanolamines by acylglycerols.
PubMed:Liver subcellular fatty acid profiles of chicks fed diets containing hydrogenated fats and varying linoleate levels.
PubMed:Structure and polymorphism of 18-carbon fatty acyl triacylglycerols: effect of unsaturation and substitution in the 2-position.
PubMed:Effects of dietary triglycerides on serum and liver lipids and sterol excretion of rats.
PubMed:Digestion and absorption of lipids and bile acids in sheep fed stearic acid, oleic acid, or tristearin.
PubMed:Dietary fat dependence of intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in rats.
PubMed:Potentiation of morphine analgesia by subanesthetic doses of pentobarbital.
PubMed:Effect of dietary fat on lipid secretion and ketone body production in rat liver.
PubMed:Free fatty acid and triglyceride content of Mycobacterium avium cultured under different growth conditions.
PubMed:Effects of excess dietary L-cystine on the rat plasma lipoproteins.
PubMed:Effect of dietary supplementation with stearic acid on the severity of myocardial lesions.
PubMed:Effect of fat retention on the rachitogenic effect of rye fed to broiler chicks.
PubMed:Effect of excess dietary cystine on the biodynamics of cholesterol in the rat.
PubMed:Effect of dietary triglycerides on lymphocyte transformation in rats.
PubMed:Improved separation of triglycerides at low temperatures by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
PubMed:An improved long-acting delivery system for narcotic antagonists.
PubMed:On the mechanism of regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase by dietary fat.
PubMed:Solid dispersion of morphine-tristearin with reduced presystemic inactivation in rats.
PubMed:Effect of dietary long-chain fatty acids on the rates of cholesterol turnover processes, cholesterol origin and distribution in the rat intestinal lumen.
PubMed:Effects of diets of homogeneous saturated triglycerides on cholesterol balance in rats.
PubMed:Effects of tristearin, triolein and safflower oil diets on cholesterol balance in rats.
PubMed:Dietary fat-dependent changes in hepatic cholesterogenesis and the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in fasted-refed rats.
PubMed:[Lipolytic activity of microorganisms isolated from different sources].
PubMed:Regulation by dietary fats of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase in rat liver.
PubMed:Diet and sterol biohydrogenation in the rat: occurrence of epicoprostanol.
PubMed:Effects of dietary fats on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and sterol synthesis in the liver of fasted-refed rats.
PubMed:The effect of cholesterol on the viscosity of protein-lipid monolayers.
PubMed:Changes in (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells produced by alteration of membrane fatty acid composition.
PubMed:Thermal properties of systems containing cholesteryl esters and triglycerides.
PubMed:Cholesteryl ester accumulation in Ehrlich cells induced by saturated fats.
PubMed:Spin label translational diffusion in solid tristearin.
PubMed:Lipase from Pseudomonas fragi. II. Properties of the Enzyme.
PubMed:The absorption of tristearin and stearic acid and tripalmitin and palmitic acid. Studies on the rate-limiting steps in rats.
PubMed:Studies on serum lipase against different triglycerides in some clinical conditions. 2. Purification of triolein and tristearin and development of assay method for trioleinase and tristearinase.
PubMed:Separation of triglycerides by gas-liquid chromatography.
PubMed:The participation of phospholipids in the interaction of leucocidin and the cell membrane of the polymorphonuclear leucocyte.
 
Notes:
TG(18:0/18:0/18:0) is a tristearic acid triglyceride. Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides, meaning that they are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acid groups (i.e. fatty acid tri-esters of glycerol). TGs may be divided into three general types with respect to their acyl substituents. They are simple or monoacid if they contain only one type of fatty acid, diacid if they contain two types of fatty acids and triacid if three different acyl groups. Chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides can be of varying lengths and saturations but 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. TG(18:0/18:0/18:0), in particular, consists of one chain of stearic acid at the C-1 position, one chain of stearic acid at the C-2 position and one chain of stearic acid at the C-3 position. TGs are the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats. TGs are major components of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat. They contain more than twice the energy (9 kcal/g) of carbohydrates and proteins. In the intestine, triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids (this process is called lipolysis) with the help of lipases and bile secretions, which can then move into blood vessels. The triglycerides are rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins, which deliver the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions. Various tissues can release the free fatty acids and take them up as a source of energy. Fat cells can synthesize and store triglycerides. When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (www.cyberlipid.org, www.wikipedia.org) TAGs can serve as fatty acid stores in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue. The major building block for the synthesis of triacylglycerides, in non-adipose tissue, is glycerol. Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which is produced during glycolysis, is the precursor for TAG synthesis in adipose tissue. DHAP can also serve as a TAG precursor in non-adipose tissues, but does so to a much lesser extent than glycerol. The use of DHAP for the TAG backbone depends on whether the synthesis of the TAGs occurs in the mitochondria and ER or the ER and the peroxisomes. The ER/mitochondria pathway requires the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to convert DHAP to glycerol-3-phosphate. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. The ER/peroxisome reaction pathway uses the peroxisomal enzyme DHAP acyltransferase to acylate DHAP to acyl-DHAP which is then reduced by acyl-DHAP reductase. The fatty acids that are incorporated into TAGs are activated to acyl-CoAs through the action of acyl-CoA synthetases. Two molecules of acyl-CoA are esterified to glycerol-3-phosphate to yield 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. This diacylglycerol serves as the substrate for addition of the third fatty acid to make TAG. Intestinal monoacylglycerols, derived from dietary fats, can also serve as substrates for the synthesis of 1,2-diacylglycerols. [HMDB] A triglyceride (triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. It is the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats. (Wikipedia)
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